United States

see Neurosurgical training in USA.

The incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) is declining in several areas of the world, including the United States. While the reasons for this are unclear, there seems to be some effect from prenatal diagnosis, genetic counseling, and possibly nutritional supplementation 1)

Approximately 89,000 new primary brain tumors are diagnosed in the United States each year, for which 27% are gliomas and 32.8% are malignant gliomas 2).

see Top-Ranked Hospitals for Neurology & Neurosurgery in USA.

There is marked geographic variation in the rates of arthrodesis in treatment of spondylolisthesis within the United States. This variation remains pronounced after accounting for patient-level demographic differences. Costs of surgery and quality outcomes also vary widely. Further study is necessary to understand the drivers of this variation 3).

Lemire RJ. Neural tube defects. JAMA. 1988 Jan 22-29;259(4):558-62. Review. PubMed PMID: 3275817.
Ostrom QT, Gittleman H, Fulop J, Liu M, Blanda R, Kromer C, Wolinsky Y, Kruchko C, Barnholtz-Sloan JS. CBTRUS Statistical Report: Primary Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2008-2012. Neuro Oncol. 2015 Oct;17 Suppl 4:iv1-iv62. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/nov189. Epub 2015 Oct 27. PubMed PMID: 26511214; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4623240.
Azad TD, Vail D, O'Connell C, Han SS, Veeravagu A, Ratliff JK. Geographic variation in the surgical management of lumbar spondylolisthesis: characterizing practice patterns and outcomes. Spine J. 2018 May 7. pii: S1529-9430(18)30207-9. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2018.05.008. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29746964.
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