Unruptured intracranial aneurysm treatment

see Magnetic Resonance Vessel Wall Imaging

The management of UIAs should focus on the control of hypertension during the follow-up. Aneurysms on the posterior communicating artery, posterior circulation, and cavernous carotid arteries require intensive surveillance or timely treatment 1).

The establishment of drug therapy to prevent rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is needed. Previous human and animal studies have gradually clarified candidate drugs for the prevention of intracranial aneurysm rupture. However, because most of these candidates belong to classes of drugs frequently co-administered to prevent cardiovascular diseases, epidemiological studies evaluating these drugs simultaneously should be performed. Furthermore, because drugs included in the same class may have different effects in terms of disease prevention, drug-by-drug assessments are important for planning intervention trials.

Shimizu et al. performed a cross-sectional study enrolling patients diagnosed with IAs between July 2011 and June 2019. Patients were divided into ruptured or unruptured groups. The drugs investigated were selected according to evidence suggested by either human or animal studies. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association of drug treatment with rupture status. They also performed drug-by-drug assessments of the association, including dose-response relationships, with rupture status.

In total, 310 patients with ruptured and 887 patients with unruptured IAs were included. Multivariate analysis revealed an inverse association of statins (odds ratio (OR), 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-0.77), calcium channel blockers (OR, 0.41; 95% CI 0.30-0.58), and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) (OR, 0.67; 95% CI 0.48-0.93) with ruptured IAs. Moreover, inverse dose-response relationships with rupture status were observed for pitavastatin and rosuvastatin among statins, benidipine, cilnidipine, and amlodipine among calcium channel blockers, and valsartan, azilsartan, candesartan, and olmesartan among ARBs. Only non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were positively associated with ruptured IAs (OR, 3.24; 95% CI 1.71-6.13).

The present analysis suggests that several types of statins, calcium channel blockers, and ARBs are candidate drugs for the preventive treatment of unruptured IAs 2).

see Unruptured intracranial aneurysm treatment decision.

In the early 1990's, endovascular treatment using embolic coils for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms was established. Since then, there has been a significant body of peer-reviewed literature written by medical experts regarding the use, safety, and efficacy of these detachable embolic coils. With the publishing of the ISAT (Intracranial Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial) trial data in 2005, which compared clinical outcomes of neurosurgical clipping and endovascular coiling, embolic coiling became the preferred method for treatment of the majority of unruptured intracranial aneurysms 3).

Geng J, Wang S, Wang Y, Wang W, Fang G, Yang G, Fan X, Hu P, He C, Zhang H. Clinical, 3D Morphological, and Hemodynamic Risk Factors for Instability of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms. Clin Neuroradiol. 2023 Jun 15. doi: 10.1007/s00062-023-01324-9. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37318560.
Shimizu K, Imamura H, Tani S, Adachi H, Sakai C, Ishii A, Kataoka H, Miyamoto S, Aoki T, Sakai N. Candidate drugs for preventive treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2021 Feb 12;16(2):e0246865. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246865. PMID: 33577580.
Molyneux AJ, Kerr RS, Yu LM, Clarke M, Sneade M, Yarnold JA, Sandercock P; International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) Collaborative Group. International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised comparison of effects on survival, dependency, seizures, rebleeding, subgroups, and aneurysm occlusion. Lancet. 2005 Sep 3-9;366(9488):809-17. PubMed PMID: 16139655.
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