Catheter malpositioning is one of the most frequent causes of ventriculoperitoneal shunt dysfunction and revision surgery. Most intraoperative tools used to improve the accuracy of catheter insertion are time consuming and expensive or do not display the final position.
Coluccia et al evaluate the usefulness of intraoperative fluoroscopy to decrease catheter malpositioning, and define radiological landmarks to identify the correct localization.
A total of 104 patients undergoing ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement were analyzed for shunt position, revision surgery and outcome. The results for patients operated on using intraoperative biplanar fluoroscopic assessment of catheter location (X-ray group, n = 57) were compared with a control group operated without intraoperative radiography (control, n = 47). In order to generate a surgical reference map for intraoperative validation of shunt location, different ventricular system landmarks were defined on three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions of hydrocephalic patients (n = 60) and exported to a two-dimensional layer of the skull.
The use of intraoperative X-ray imaging correlated with a significant increase of optimal catheter positions (X-ray group, n = 45, 79%; control group, n = 23, 49%; P = 0.0018). The sensitivity and positive predictive value for estimating an optimal shunt catheter position on biplanar imaging was 96% (95% confidence interval, 87%-99%). The specificity and negative predictive value were both 92% (95% confidence interval, 78%-98%).
Intraoperative fluoroscopy is easy to perform and is a reliable method to assess correct catheter positioning. Based on its predictive value, corrections of malpositioned ventricular catheters can be performed during the same procedure. The use of intraoperative fluoroscopy decreases early surgical revisions in ventriculoperitoneal shunt treatment 1).
Supposing that a convex of skull matches to a sphere, in which the foramen of Monro is the center, a perpendicular direction from the surface of the sphere to inside always directs toward the center. The authors identified the range of skull where corresponded to the sphere by magnetic resonance imaging assessment and utilized tripod to achieve exactly perpendicular insertion of ventricular catheter. And an optimal length of catheter insertion was investigated by navigation system.
The anterior-posterior range of the spherical portion was from coronal suture to 20mm anterior, and the lateral range of it was between 15 and 35mm lateral from sagittal suture. The optimal catheter length for insertion was between 55 and 58mm from the brain surface. Ideal placement of a ventricular catheter tip was achieved in more than 90% of cases (31/34) with this technique 2).
A analysis demonstrated an improvement of catheter positioning with ultrasound guidance. In the absence of additional burden or risks, this method should be favored over freehand technique. It remains to be demonstrated in a randomized controlled fashion to what extent improved catheter position translates into improved outcome 3).
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